BMP(Bone Morphogenetic Protein、骨形成性タンパク質)その発見と役割 


BMPは、Bone Morphogenetic Protein、骨形成性タンパク質という名前に似合わず、発生の初期など様々な発生の場面で重要な役割を果たします。骨形成は様々な役割の中の一つに過ぎません。


BMP, FGF, TGF, TNFなどは、名付けられた由来とは異なる役割を果たすことが多いようです。


Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), originally identified as osteo-inductive components in extracts derived from bone, are now known to play important roles in a wide array of processes during formation and maintenance of various organs including bone, cartilage, muscle, kidney, and blood vessels. BMPs and the related “growth and differentiation factors” (GDFs) are members of the transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) family, and transduce their signals through type I and type II serine–threonine kinase receptors and their intracellular downstream effectors, including Smad proteins. Furthermore, BMP signals are finely tuned by various agonists and antagonists.


Bone Morphogenetic Proteins (BMPs) are multi-functional growth factors belonging to the Transforming Growth Factor-Beta (TGF-β) superfamily, which is also shared by Growth Differentiation Factors (GDFs), Glial-derived Neurotrophic Factors (GDNFs), Lefty, Inhibins, Activins, Nodal, and Mülllerian Inhibiting Substance (MIS) [,,,,]. Currently, over 20 BMPs have been identified, making these proteins the largest subgroup within the TGF-β superfamily. BMPs have crucial functions in developmental processes, such as cardiogenesis, digit apoptosis, somite formation, neurogenesis, eye formation, and musculoskeletal development [,,,,,,,]. Additionally, BMPs are expressed throughout adulthood, contributing to osteogenesis, adipogenesis, chondrogenesis, programmed cell death, cardiac differentiation, and nervous system maintenance [,,,,,,,,,,,,]. The first BMP was identified in bone in 1965 by Marshall Urist and named BMP-2 [].

  1. The roles and regulatory mechanisms of TGF-β and BMP signaling in bone and cartilage development, homeostasis and disease Mengrui Wu, Shali Wu, Wei Chen & Yi-Ping Li Cell Research volume 34, pages101–123 (2024)