共感の科学研究

世の中には気が合う人と合わない人がいます。これが自分はずっとナゾでした。なぜ合う人と合わない人がいるのでしょうか。

合う合わないをもう少し具体的に考えると、共感するかしないか、協同作業を行うときにラポール(信頼感)が生じるかどうかということになります。

共感(empathy)やラポール(rapport)の実体(neural correlates, neural substrate)は何でしょうか。

共感とは

  1. Empathy is the capacity to feel and understand others’ mental states. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0278262622000173

論文

2022

  • Empathy at birth: Mother’s cortex synchronizes with that of her newborn in pain Eur J Neurosci. 2022;55:1519–1531
  • Social synchronization of brain activity increases during eye-contact Communications Biology volume 5, Article number: 412 (2022) Published: 04 May 2022

2021

  • Exploring the “Dark Matter” of Social Interaction: Systematic Review of a Decade of Research in Spontaneous Interpersonal Coordination. Front. Psychol., 11 October 2021
  • Incorporating Interpersonal Synchronization Features for Automatic Emotion Recognition from Visual and Audio Data during Communication Sensors 2021, 21(16), 5317
  • Human attachments shape interbrain synchrony toward efficient performance of social goals. NeuroImage Volume 226, 1 February 2021 The current study utilized hyperscanning EEG to measure neural synchrony during two naturalistic interactions: joint motor activity and empathy-giving, in male-female pairs who were either long-term cou- ples, best friends, or strangers. … In order to assess the brain synchrony between the couples, data was bandpass to alpha (8–12Hz), beta (13–30Hz) and gamma (31–48Hz), and phase-locking value (PLV) was calculated between each pair of between-subject electrodes and for every frequency.

2020

2019

  • Implementing EEG hyperscanning setups. Barrazaa et al.,  MethodsX Volume 6, 2019, Pages 428-436.
  • Prior physical synchrony enhances rapport and inter-brain synchronization during subsequent educational communication. 04 September 2019 Scientific Reports 9: 12747 (2019) Nozawa et al. Using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) hyperscanning, we tested the effects of preceding physical synchrony on subsequent dyadic teaching-learning communication.
  • 同時計測されたEEG信号からの2名における感情共有の測定 (2019). (PDF)
  • Using second-person neuroscience to elucidate the mechanisms of social interaction Nature Reviews Neuroscience volume 20, pages495–505 (2019)

2017

  • Brain-to-Brain Synchrony during Naturalistic Social Interactions. Scientific Reports 7: 17060 (2017) 06 December 2017 Kinreich et al. Using hyperscanning EEG recordings, we measured brain-to-brain synchrony in 104 adults during a male-female naturalistic social interaction, comparing romantic couples and strangers. 人間対人間の自然なやりとりにおける脳波の同調を報告した初の例 ‥ Brain areas that support brain-to-brain neural synchrony may involve temporal-parietal structures, including the posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS) and temporo-parietal junction (TPJ), and studies using a variety of methods have indeed pinpointed neural synchrony to these regions. 同調が認められる脳の部位 Hyperscanning EEG is a recently-developed methodology for recording EEG simultaneously from two or more individuals engaged in a social task. やりとりをする複数の人の脳活動を同時計測するハイパースキャニング脳波計測
  • Brain-to-brain entrainment: EEG interbrain synchronization while speaking and listening Scientific Reports volume 7, Article number: 4190 (2017)

2015

2014

2013

2012

  • The two-brain approach: how can mutually interacting brains teach us something about social interaction? Front. Hum. Neurosci., 24 July 2012 The second group of studies has recorded dual EEG/NIRS from two people interacting, in (1) face-to-face turn-based interactions, investigating functional connectivity between theory-of-mind regions of interacting partners, or in (2) continuous mutual interactions on millisecond timescales, to measure coupling between the activity in one person’s brain and the activity in the other’s brain. レビュー論文
  • Interpersonal body and neural synchronization as a marker of implicit social interaction Scientific Reports volume 2, Article number: 959 (2012)

2008

  • Gamma-band activity in the human superior temporal sulcus during mentalizing from nonverbal social cues Cohen et al.  23 December 2008 Psychophysiology The posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS) is a key structure for our ability to infer others’ mental states based on social cues including facial expressions, body posture, and gestures (“mentalizing“)